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There are different opinions about the root from which the word

Quran derives. It is possible to consider these views in two groups as those who argue that the word is non-nonsense and non-nonsense. According to the first view, which is supported by other scholars and transmitted from Imam Shafii, who is among those who say that the name of the Qur’an is non-hamzah, the word is “al-quran” ( القرآن ) as letter-i ta’rif, and neither “kara’e” ( It is not derived from the verb قرأ ) nor from any other root; It is the special name given by Allah to the book sent for the last religion such as the Torah and the Bible (Beyhakī, I, 277). Ibn Kathir, one of the ten imams of recitation, reads the word without a hamzah, while the others read it as a hamzah. According to a group of scholars together with Abu’l-Hasan al-Ash’ari, the word karnIt is derived from the root and means “to bring one thing closer to another, to add”. Yahyâ b. Ziyâd el-Ferrâ and Kurtubî, on the other hand , show kara’in as the root of the word Qur’an . Because some of the verses of the Qur’an confirm the other and the verses are similar to each other (Zerkeşî, I, 374).

Abdullah b. Abbas, Qatada b. Diâme, Ebû Ubeyde Ma’mer b. Scholars such as Müsennâ, İbn Cerîr et-Taberî, Zeccâc, Bâkıllânî and contemporary scholars Muhammed Hamdi and Muhammed Tahir b. Âşûr is of the opinion that the noun “al-qur’an” is a word derived from the verb “kara’e”. However, there is a disagreement among them as to which of the verb “kara’e” means “to read”, “to collect” and “to explain” according to its infinitives. While Ibn Abbas said that “quran”, which is the infinitive of the word, means “to explain, to declare”, while Qatada b. Diâme and Zeccâc express that it is an infinitive from the verb in the use of “kara’tü’ş- Şey’e kar’en” or “kara’tü’l-mae fi’l-havzi” in the sense of “gathering and putting together”. Although Tabari states that both views have their place in the Arabic language, he prefers the one that belongs to Ibn Abbas. Cevheri, Many scholars such as Ragib al-Isfahani and Ibn Atiyye al-Andalusi say that the word is a noun from the verb “kara’e”, which means “to read” (qiraat, tilavet). Considering the reasons such as the beginning of the Islamic revelation with the command “ikra'” (read), the use of the root “kara’e” in the Qur’an in the sense of “reading” in seventeen places, and the fact that the Qur’an is a highly recommended book to be read, the Qur’an It seems more correct to accept that the name ‘an derives from the verb “kara’e” meaning “to read”. Frantz Buhl and AT Welch, many Western scholars, the word Qur’an in Syriac “writing-text; in the meaning of “lesson in the church” Considering the reasons such as the use of the root “kara’e” in the Qur’an in the meaning of “reading” in seventeen places and the fact that the Qur’an is a book that is recommended to be read a lot, the name of the Qur’an is “kara’e”, which means “to read”. It seems more correct to accept that it is derived from the verb. Frantz Buhl and AT Welch, many Western scholars, the word Qur’an in Syriac “writing-text; in the meaning of “lesson in the church” Considering the reasons such as the use of the root “kara’e” in the Qur’an in the meaning of “reading” in seventeen places and the fact that the Qur’an is a book that is recommended to be read a lot, the name of the Qur’an is “kara’e”, which means “to read”. It seems more correct to accept that it is derived from the verb. Frantz Buhl and AT Welch, many Western scholars, the word Qur’an in Syriac “writing-text; in the meaning of “lesson in the church”They say that they accept that it is derived from the root karyanâ . Arabic linguists also state that “kara’e” does not directly mean “recitation” and “recitation” in terms of its root meaning. However, the word has also been used in the sense of “reading, keeping a knowledge in mind” since the years before the Qur’an was revealed.

Various definitions have been made regarding the meaning of the term of the Qur’an, and these have been brought together to a large extent and the following definition has been reached: “The Qur’an is the last prophet Hz. It is a miraculous word in Arabic, which was revealed to Muhammad, written in mushafs, transmitted with tawatur, worshiped by reciting, starting with the chapter of Fatiha and ending with the chapter of Nas, and which others are unable to reproduce.” According to this schedule, St. The books and pages that were not revealed to the Prophet, the translation of the Qur’an or the way the meanings of the Qur’an were expressed in other words in Arabic, Hz. Recitations and holy hadiths that do not follow the line of Osman’s mushafs cannot be called the Qur’an (Şevkani, p. 62).

The fact that there is no consensus on the number of other nouns and adjectives in the Qur’an stems from the fact that some words that are not nouns are accepted as nouns or adjectives. Zerkeşî and Süyûtî, noting that Şeyzele mentioned fifty-five names (book, Qur’an, kalam, light, Hüda, mercy, furkan, healing, mev’iza, zikr, kerîm, alî, wisdom, wise, muhaymin, blessed, habl, es-sırâtü’l-müstakīm, trustee, fasl, en-nebeü’l-azîm, ahsenü’l-hadîs, tenzîl, rûh, revelation, mesânî, Arabi, kavl, besâir, statement, ilm, right, hedy [ hadî], aceb, tezkire, al-urvetü’l-vüskā, mutashabih, sidk, adl, îmân, emr, busrâ, münâdî, nazîr, mecîd, zebûr, mubîn, fiveîr, azîz, belâğ, kasâsûame, mehuf, , mutahhera) explained their meanings ( al-Burhân fî ʿulûmi’l-Ḳurʾân , I, 370-373; al-Itḳan, I, 159-164). However, although some of these words can be accepted as the names of the Qur’an, it is seen that most of them, such as ali, habl, es-sırâtü’l-müstakīm, fasl, nebeun azîm, are not names but are words that point to the Qur’an in some way or its attributes. The words mesânî and mutashabih refer either to only one chapter of the Qur’an or to various verses. Mawardi says that in the Qur’an, Allah named His own book with the names “al-quran, al-furkan, al-kitâb, ez-dhikr”. Muhammed Tahir b. According to Âşûr, the most famous names of the Qur’an are: Qur’an, tenzîl, kitâb, furkan, zikr, revelation, kalamullah.

II. HISTORY
_ When Muhammad approached the age of forty, some aspects that had not been seen before began to appear in him. He had dreams similar to those of his life, heard voices from which he did not understand where they came from, and noticed lights ( Musned , I, 279). Again at this age, with the desire to be alone and to contemplate, he began to go to the cave of Hira and stay there until he ran out of food. Here he was trying to understand the new states that emerged in him and worshiped Allah. It is estimated to last four or five years (Ibn Hisham, I, 263-267; Hamidullah, Prophet of Islam ), I, 77-84) after this preparation period, the angel of revelation Gabriel came to him for the first time and said to him “read”. When he replied, “I can’t read,” the angel grasped him, squeezed him, and let him go. Then he said “read” again. Hz. When Muhammad said again, “I can’t read,” the angel squeezed him again and let him go. Upon the same answer, after Jibril pressed him for the third time, he said, “Read in the name of your Lord who created. He created man from a grafted egg. Read! Your Lord is infinitely gracious. He is the one who teaches with the pen. He recited the verses that mean “He taught man what he did not know” (al-Alak 96/1-5) and went away. Horrified, Hz. Returning to his home, Muhammad said to his wife, Hatice, “Cover me”, rested for a while, and when he got up, he told her what had happened to him. Hatice calmed him by saying that Allah would not make him a liar. Then, together with Hatice’s uncle’s son Varaka b. They went to Nevfel. Varaka told the Messenger of Allah that the one who came to him had previously been Hz. He said that he was the “honor” (Gabriel) who came to Moses, and that if he was alive when he started preaching, he would follow and help him (Musnad , VI, 232; Bukhari, “Bedʾü’l-vaḥy”, 3; Muslim, “Iman”, 252). Thus, Muhammad understood that he was assigned to be a prophet, and Khadija gained the honor of being the first Muslim by believing in him. According to the conclusion drawn from the narrations on the subject and the relevant verses of the Qur’an (al-Baqara 2/185; al-Kadr 97/1), the Qur’an is the Prophet’s. When the Prophet was forty years old, it started to descend on the 27th night of Ramadan in 610 ( Hamidullah, Prophet of Islam , I, 80). Stating that the first revelations were in the form of faithful dreams, Hz. The expression “dream-yi sadika” in the narration from Aisha ( Musnad ), VI, 232; Bukhari, “Bedʾü’l-vaḥy”, 3; Muslim, “Iman”, 252), Hz. Considering the developments that prepared Muhammad for prophethood, this narration does not contradict the information that the first verses descended began with the command “read”. Revelation Hz. The reports that Muhammad came to the cave of Hira while he was asleep (Ibn Hisham, I, 267-269; Ibn Sa’d, I, 194-195) do not seem reliable enough in the face of the narrations of Bukhari and Muslim. In addition, there is no clear evidence showing that any of the verses in the Qur’an were revealed through dreams during sleep (Muhammad b. Muhammad Abu Shahbe, p. 58). Hz. Nor should it be concluded that Muhammad was expecting a prophethood. As a matter of fact, it is stated in the Qur’an that he did not expect prophethood (al-Qasas 28/86).

In hadith sources, different information is given about the descent of the Qur’an. Suyuti has dealt with the narrations on the subject in three main groups. According to the first group, the Qur’an descended from the al-Mahfuz to the heavens of the world (or “baytu’l-izzet”) on the night of power, and then, in twenty or twenty-three years, piece by piece, the Qur’an was sent down to the Prophet. It was revealed to the Prophet. Suyuti finds the content of these narrations, which he sees as authentic, more appropriate and consistent. According to the second group of narrations, the Qur’an was revealed to the world sky in the amount that would be revealed in that year on the night of power every year, and then it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah when necessary. According to the third group of narrations, the Qur’an began to descend for the first time on the night of Qadr, and then its descent continued for twenty-odd years. However, the fact that almost all of the narrations reported by al-Suyuti on the subject are the words of the Companions, primarily Ibn Abbas, shows that these are mostly personal opinions and makes it possible to look at the view regarding the descent of the Qur’an to the world sky once or more than once with suspicion. In addition, considering that a verse or sura in the mushaf is also called the Qur’an, from the expressions stating that the Qur’an was revealed in the month of Ramadan (al-Baqara 2/185) and the night of Qadr (al-Kadr 97/1), all of it is in this month and night. It is not necessary to draw the conclusion that it has descended.

After the revelation of the first five verses of Surah Al-Alaq, revelation was interrupted for a while (Bukhari, “Bedʾü’l-vaḥy”, 3). Different periods are reported about the duration of this period, ranging from fifteen days to three years. However, the fact that it is a long period of three years does not coincide with the fact, and it comes to mind that this understanding stems from the fact that it was confused with the three-year period of secret communiqué. The first revelation after the interregnum period was the first verses of the Müddessir sura (Bukhari, “Bedʾü’l-vaḥy”, 4, “Bedʾü’l-ḫalḳ”, 7, “Tafsîr”, 74, 96: Muslim, “İmân”, 73, 161; Ibn Sa’d, I, 195). After a long time, a second interruption was experienced before the revelation of Surah Duha (see SURE DUHA ).

Scholars have focused on the wisdom behind the gradual revelation of the Qur’an, and this is why Hz. They talked about the benefits that the Prophet provided for himself and his ummah ( Süyûtî, el-İtḳān , I, 129-138). Keeping the community’s interest in revelation alive, maintaining the loyalty to the Messenger of God until his death, observing gradualism in the provisions to provide ease of education and practice, determining the priorities in social life, giving time to those who harbor enmity towards revelation and winning their hearts are some of these (Bukhari, “Feżâʾilü”). l-Ḳurʾân”, 6; Ateş, Qur’an Encyclopedia , XII, 104-105).

Although there is an agreement that the first five verses of Surah Al-Alaq are the first verses to be revealed, it is controversial which surah descended first. It is highly likely that Fatiha is the first revealed surah of the Qur’an (Elmalılı, I, 7; VIII, 5943-5944). It is clear that the chapters of Müddessir, Alak, Kalem and Müzzemmil are among the first to descend ( Suyûtî, el-İtḳān , I, 76-83). The first surah that was revealed in the Medina period is Baqara. It is also controversial which verse is the last descended verse. Those who say that the 281st verse of the chapter of al-Baqara is the last verse to be revealed reported that the Messenger of God died nine or eighty-one nights after the revelation of this verse. It is widely accepted that the last verses that were revealed are in the chapter of Tawba (verse 128, 129) ( Musnad )., V, 134). The claim that the last verse (5/3) of the chapter of al-Maide, which was revealed in Arafat during the Farewell pilgrimage, with the translation of “Today I have completed your religion for you…” 2/278), the inheritance of the person who does not have a method and offspring (an-Nisa 4/176) was not accepted due to the fact that verses were sent down. According to a narration from Ibn Abbas, Surah Nasr is the last surah to be revealed (Muslim, “Tafsir”, 21). It is also reported that the last chapter of Tawba was revealed (for different narrations and evaluations, see Zerkeşî, I, 298-300; Süyûtî, el-İtḳān , I, 87-91).

The most accepted view among the views regarding the Makki and Madani surahs is that the verses and surahs that were revealed before the hijra should be considered Makki, regardless of where they were revealed, and those that were revealed after the hijra should be considered Madani. Because these two concepts express two different periods with their own specific conditions. According to Zerkeşî, eighty-five of the surahs are Meccan, twenty-nine are Madani ( al-Burhân fî ʿulûmi’l-Ḳurʾân , I, 281), and according to Süyûtî, eighty-two are Meccan, twenty are Madani, and twelve are conflicting ( al-Ittān)., I, 33). However, according to the common view today, eighty-six of the surahs are Makki and twenty-eight Madani. There are Madani verses in some Meccan suras, and Meccan verses in Madinah surahs. In the Meccan verses of the Qur’an, mostly faith issues, the contradictions that the polytheists fell into, the events that happened to the past ummahs, moral and human values ​​were mentioned, and these verses mostly have a short and poetic expression. Despite this, it is seen that some Madani surahs, such as the Rahman surah, have the style of the Makki surahs.

The Qur’an used the words “al-quran” and “al-kitâb” in many places while talking about itself. These names indicate that it is a revelation that is both read and written. Hz. The Prophet first conveyed the revelations to the people, and then had the revelation scribes dictate them. The Arabs, who were far from written culture, had no trouble memorizing the verses and surahs that were revealed thanks to their strong memorization skills. Due to the primitiveness of Arabic script and the scarcity of literate people, writing was limited to a small number of Muslims. There has been an increase in the number of people who learned to read and write since the end of the Meccan period, and especially in the Medina period, both the writing material and the number of those who knew how to write increased. The number of literate people in Mecca, who were engaged in trade, especially between countries, was higher than the people of Medina. As a matter of fact, most of the about forty revelation scribes were from Mecca. The Messenger of God appointed the literate Companions in Medina to teach writing. Abdullah b. Said b. As, Ubade b. Samit (Musnad , V, 215) and Hafsa bint Omar ( Musnad , VI, 372; Abu Dâvûd, “Ṭib”, 18) are among those assigned for this purpose. The Qur’an itself states that the revealed verses were written from the first years of the Meccan period (for example, see al-Furkan 25/5; et-Tûr 52/1-3; Abese 80/11-16; al-Beyyina 98/2) , in hadith sources ( Musnad, III, 12, 21, 39, 65; Bukhari, “Cihâd”, 129, “Feżâʾilü’l-Ḳurʾân”, 4; Muslim, “İmâre”, 24/92-94, “Zuhd”, 16/72; Ibn Majah, “Jihad”, 45; Tirmidhi, “Tafsîr”, 10) and history books. Even if it is thought that the revelation may not have been dictated in the first few years, when Muslims were few in number, this did not constitute a disadvantage. Because the surahs descended in this period were easily memorized and read by the Messenger of Allah and his companions, due to their shortness and stylistic features. One of the most important proofs that the revelation was written from early times is Hz. Omar’s conversion to Islam. While Omar, his sister and brother-in-law were reciting Surah Taha over a written text, he went to them, asked for the text they read, and read it after taking a ghusl (Ibn Hisham, I, 370-373).

Hz. The revelation scribes assigned by the Prophet were writing the revealed verses on the available materials (Bukhari, “Feżâʾilü’l-Ḳurʾân”, 4). These materials are very diverse and the most famous ones are camels’ shovel and rib bones (azm), tanned leather pieces (edîm), leaf stones (lihâf), suitable places of date branches (asib), ceramic pieces (hazef), wood (kateb), parchment ( rakk) and papyrus (kirtas; for the material on which the revelation was written, see Musnad , V, 185; Süyûtî, el-İtḳān , I, 185-186; Hamîdullah, History of the Qur’an, s. 43). Although there are different opinions about whether the written texts were kept with the Messenger of Allah or the scribes of revelation, it is understood that the Messenger of Allah allowed the revelation scribes to stay with the revelation scribes so that the written revelation could be written and learned by other people (Heysemî, I, 152).

The verses of the Qur’an There is no information that the Prophet took the form of a book when he was alive. The main reason why the Qur’an was not placed between two covers at that time was that it was not known when the revelation would cease, since the Messenger of Allah was alive. However, it is understood from the practice (arza) of the Messenger of God and Gabriel to recite (arza) the verses that have been sent down to that day, to each other during Ramadan (Bukhari, “Bedʾü’l-ḫalḳ”, 6) that the Qur’an is on the way to take the form of a book. In some narrations, Zayd b. Thabit and Ubey b. It is stated that the Companions like Ka’b followed these readings closely ( Musnad )., V, 117; Judge, II, 225). In particular, the last reading in the month of Ramadan in the year the Messenger of Allah passed away, took place two times, thus the mushaf was revealed (Buhârî, “Bedʾü’l-vaḥy”, 5, “Feżâʾilü’l-Ḳurʾân”, 7, “İʿtikaf” , 17, “Menâḳib”, 25; Muslim, “Feżâʾil”, 50, “Feżâʾilü’ṣ-ṣaḥâbe”, 98, 99; Nesâî, “Ṣıyâm”, 2). Hz. There are different narrations regarding the number of people who memorized the entire Qur’an during the Prophet’s lifetime. Enes b. Although it is stated in a narration from Malik that these were four or five people, it is understood from other narrations that this number exceeded ten (see HÂFIZ ).

While the Qur’an, whose arrangement was determined in the last reading and which was written and memorized by many Companions in its final form, continued to be read, the martyrdom of some of the hafiz Companions in the Battle of Yamama and some other wars (Bukhari, “Feżâʾilü’l-Ḳurʾân”, 3) Hz. He alarmed Ömer and made him take action. Bukhari al-Câmiʿu’ṣ-ṣaḥîḥAs it is explained at length in his book, Omar, who introduced the idea of ​​collecting the Qur’an (cem’) to the Caliph Abu Bakr, convinced him in this regard, and Hz. Abu Bakr also gave this task to Zayd b. He gave it to Thabit. With the announcement, those who have copies and parts of the Qur’an with them were asked to apply to the commission together with two witnesses that these texts are verses of the Qur’an. Zayd and other members of the delegation checked and wrote down the texts brought by the Companions, taking into account the last reading. The last two verses of the chapter of at-Tawba (9/128-129) and the 23rd verse of the chapter of Ahzab are only written by Huzeyma b. He was found in Thabit al-Ansari, Hz. Because the Prophet equated his testimony with the testimony of two people, only these verses were accepted with one witness (Bukhari, “Aḥkam”, 37; “Tafsir”, 22/3). However, since these two verses in the chapter of At-Tawba were fresh in the memories since they were among the last verses, other Companions supported the existence of these verses by heart. Thus, the Qur’an was collected completely with the help of written materials and memorization, and Hz. It was handed over to Abu Bakr. This compilation between the two covers was called “mushaf”, this book was transferred to Ömer after Abu Bakr, and to Hafsa, who was his daughter and also the wife of the Messenger of Allah, upon his death (Buhârî, “Feżâʾilü’l-Ḳurʾân”, 3, 4, “Tawba”, 20; Ibn Abu Dawud, pp. 6, 8, 30-31). Hz. The Qur’an, which was compiled with the instructions of Abu Bakr, was firstly sent to Hz. He received the approval of all the companions, including Omar and Ali (ijma), and there was no objection from anyone (Ebû Abdullah es-Sayrafî, p. 355-357). After the death of the Messenger of Allah, Hz. Even though it was interpreted differently that Ali did not leave his house and collect the Qur’an with his personal effort, the work carried out by Abu Bakr was transferred to Hz. It is known that Ali appreciated it (Ibn Abu Shayba, VI, 148; Ibn Abu Dâvûd, p. 10), and the moderate branches of the Shia were the Prophet’s. He believes that there is no difference between the Qur’an compiled during the time of Abu Bakr and the text revealed to the Messenger of Allah (M. Hüseyin Tabâtabâî, pp. 130-133; Karataş, pp. 55-71, 221-228). Hz. This mushaf of Abu Bakr was preserved as a precaution, and the Companions continued their reading according to their own copies and memorizations. However, it is certain that memorization was made according to the order formed towards the end of the life of the Messenger of Allah and some personal copies were created. s. 10), The moderate branches of Shia are also Hz. He believes that there is no difference between the Qur’an compiled during the time of Abu Bakr and the text revealed to the Messenger of Allah (M. Hüseyin Tabâtabâî, pp. 130-133; Karataş, pp. 55-71, 221-228). Hz. This mushaf of Abu Bakr was preserved as a precaution, and the Companions continued their reading according to their own copies and memorizations. However, it is certain that memorization was made according to the order formed towards the end of the life of the Messenger of Allah and some personal copies were created. s. 10), The moderate branches of Shia are also Hz. He believes that there is no difference between the Qur’an compiled during the time of Abu Bakr and the text revealed to the Messenger of Allah (M. Hüseyin Tabâtabâî, pp. 130-133; Karataş, pp. 55-71, 221-228). Hz. This mushaf of Abu Bakr was preserved as a precaution, and the Companions continued their reading according to their own copies and memorizations. However, it is certain that memorization was made according to the order formed towards the end of the life of the Messenger of Allah and some personal copies were created.

Hz. In the Islamic geography, which expanded with the increasing conquests during the Omar and Osman eras, Muslims other than Arabs learned and read the Qur’an with the mushaf and recitation of the Companions who were famous in their own region, and they probably made special copies for themselves from these mushafs. While this practice was going on, those who could not correctly evaluate some of the recitation differences that emerged due to the “seven letter” license and the structure of the Arabic language saw this as an important reason for conflict and started serious discussions (Makki b. Abu Talib, pp. 48-49). Bukhari’s Enes b. According to the rumor he conveyed from Malik, the commander of the army that participated in the conquest of Azerbaijan and Armenia, Huzeyfe b. When Yeman saw the recitation conflict between the Syrian and Iraqi soldiers, he got worried; He came to Caliph Osman and offered to find a solution to the issue.al-Muḳniʿ , p. 17; Suyuti, al-Itḳān, I, 187-188) decided to duplicate the mushaf of Abu Bakr in Hafsa’s hand and send it to certain centers. Zayd b. Thabit’s Abdullah b. Zübeyr, Said b. As and Abdurrahman b. Haris b. He commissioned a committee consisting of Hisham and ordered them to take the Quraysh dialect, in which the Qur’an was revealed, as a basis when they disagreed over my writing. The delegation, whose number of members reached twelve together with the assistants, successfully completed its work and the original copy was returned to Hafsa. At the end of this study carried out between 25-30 (646-651) (Keskioğlu, p. 161-162), seven (or four, five, eight) copies of the Qur’an were reproduced together with one kari in Mecca, Kufe, Basra, Damascus, Yemen. and was sent to Bahrain, and a copy was left in Medina (Dânî, al-Muḳniʿ, s. 19; Zerkeşî, I, 334; Suyuti, al-Itḳān , I, 189-190). Hz. Osman ordered the destruction of Qur’an pages and special mushafs written other than these (Bukhari, “Feżâʾilü’l-Ḳurʾân”, 2, 3). One of the two important issues on the reproduction of the Qur’an is the ordering of the surahs according to the form revealed in the last reading, and the other is to abandon the dialect differences that are suitable for different readings and to take the Quraysh dialect as a basis (see KIRAAT ).

Hz. None of the Companions or their followers objected to Osman’s work of duplicating the mushaf. Abdullah b. According to the narration mentioned about Mas’ud, Ibn Mas’ud was appointed as the head of the delegation rather than the work done by Zayd b. He did not find it appropriate to bring Thabit, but later on Hz. Osman ( Musnad , I, 389; Tirmidhi, “Tafsîr”, 10; Abu Abdullah es-Sayrafi, pp. 361-374; Zehebî, I, 487-488). Contrary to the opinions of some Shiite groups, Hz. Ali also approved and defended the work of Caliph Osman (Ibn Abu Dâvûd, pp. 21-22; Mekkî b. Ebû Tâlib, p. 52; Dânî, al-Muḳniʿ, s. 18; Zerkeşî, I, 329, 334). The copies of the Qur’an, which were duplicated and sent to various cities, were widely accepted, the teaching of the Qur’an was carried out according to these copies, the recitations that were included in the recitations with some copies of the Qur’an and that did not comply with the official mushaf line were classified as shad recitations and were abandoned.

However, despite these mushafs, there were occasional reading difficulties and serious reading errors. The main reason for this is Mr. It was the absence of dots and movements in Osman’s mushafs. The administrator who took the first action to solve this issue, Caliph Abdulmalik b. The Iraqi governor of Mervân, Ziyâd b. He became Ebih. Ziyâd asked Ebü’l-Esved ed-Dueli to find a solution to prevent misreading. Together with a scribe assigned to his command, he moved the mushaf from beginning to end, had a red ink dot on top of the letter for conquest, a dot on the bottom of the letter, a dot in front of it for eulogy, and tanvin was shown with two dots (Ibnu’n-Nedim, p. 45-47; Dânî, al-Muḥkam, s. 3). Although the movement of the Qur’an brought ease of reading to a large extent, mistakes could not be completely avoided. Because the difficulties of those who have just learned the Arabic language and the Qur’an in distinguishing similar letters from each other continued. Iraq Governor Hajjaj, to find a solution to this, Ibn Ya’mer and Nasr b. Asım, they applied the punctuation marks they learned from Ebü’l-Esved to the Qur’an. Mushafs written in this way spread rapidly to the Islamic world (Dânî, al-Muḥkem , p. 6-7). Halil b. Ahmed, on the other hand, developed the movements and other punctuation marks used today and gave their final shape to these studies (Zerkeşî, I, 349-350; see also ARAB [Writing]; MUSHAF ).

III. THE ORDER OF THE
Qur’an consists of verses and surahs with different numbers of verses. Some verses are called with special names, and the most famous of them is Ayetu’l-kursi (al-Baqara 2/255). Names such as the verse of dayn, the verse of riba, and the verse of gambling are mostly related to the subject of the verse. In the verses that were revealed during the Meccan period, the words verse and surah are used literally (see MF Abdulbâkī, al-Mu’cem ., “verse” and “sura” clauses). For example, when the polytheists are challenged, it is requested to bring a surah similar to the one in the Qur’an (Yunus 10/38). As can be understood from here, the determination of the parts of the Qur’anic revelation in the form of verses and suras was in the first years of the prophecy. Hz. According to Osman’s mushafs, there are 114 surahs in the Qur’an. There is basmala at the beginning of all the suras, except for the chapter at-Tawba. Although there are rumors about the absence of basmala at the beginning of tawba, that this surah is the continuation of Anfal, the more consistent view is that the ultimatum will contradict this ultimatum, since the chapter of tawba begins with an ultimatum to polytheists and unbelievers. Ibn Mas’ud and Ubay b. Some Companions, such as Ka’b, do not have Fâtiha, Felak and Nas surahs in their personal mushafs, and some have qunut prayers. Although these mushafs have led to different interpretations especially by the orientalists, these mushafs are based on the disposition of the persons concerned and do not have scientific values ​​to make judgments on them. The shortest surahs of the Qur’an are Asr, Kevser and Nasr with three verses each, and the longest surah is Baccarat, which consists of 286 verses.

The verses and surahs of Hz. There are some minor disagreements about the arrangement of Osman’s mushafs. The order of the verses in the surahs Scholars based on the hadith that it was a disposition of the Prophet and that he made this saving in line with Gabriel’s will ( Musnad )., I, 57) agree that the arrangement of the verses is based on revelation (tawkīfî) (M. Zahid al-Kevseri, p. 6). Although some ijtihad errors in the arrangement of the verses have been claimed by Western scholars, on the grounds of the existence of verses in some surahs that are claimed to be disconnected from before and after, this approach is of no value since it is largely based on the Indian views on the relationship between the verses. Some of these verses, whose revelation was completed in Mecca, and Hz. Since they are included in the surahs (for example, see al-Qiyamah 75/16-19) recited by the Prophet for almost twenty years, there is no possibility of error regarding their place in the surah. The most important evidence regarding the arrangement of the verses is the mutual recitation of the Qur’an between Gabriel and the Messenger of Allah. Because it is unthinkable to read and follow the text that does not have a certain arrangement in it. However, this reading was made every year and was read in this order in prayers. Hz. In the fifteen years that passed until Osman’s copying and duplicating the Qur’an, Hz. The order that was known before the death of the Prophet was taken as the basis, and no information was found in the sources about any disagreement among the Companions on this issue (for detailed information, see Ibn al-Zubayr es-Sekafi, p. 183; Suyuti,Tertîbü süveri’l-Ḳurʾân

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